Dandruff is actually harmless, but annoying. For many people, the white scales are even embarrassing. Here we will explain why dandruff forms on the scalp and what helps against dandruff.


Dandruff is dead cells on the scalp that are shed too quickly and often clump together. The white clumps get caught in the hair or collect on the shoulders. Many of those affected find this unattractive or even embarrassing. Sometimes the symptoms are accompanied by itching.

Although the harmless phenomenon can be seen as annoying or even embarrassing, dandruff is by no means rare. About 50 percent of the population is affected by dandruff. Men develop dandruff more often than women.

Experts differentiate between dry dandruff and greasy dandruff. Both variants have different causes.

People who tend to have oilier hair and those who have certain diseases such as Parkinson's or HIV are at higher risk of dandruff.

Dandruff often first appears during puberty. However, dandruff can also develop later. Because dandruff can occur at any age.


There is no single cause for the development of dandruff. In fact, different factors can contribute to you, your partner or your child struggling with dandruff. It's not always easy to figure out what exactly causes dandruff. Here are some factors that promote dandruff:

  • excessive sebum production (manifested as greasy hair)
  • Overpopulation with certain fungi that normally only live in small numbers on the surface of the skin (such as the yeast Malassezia, which causes excessive growth of skin cells)
  • Poor shampooing technique, where you don't shampoo sufficiently long and thoroughly.

This can cause dead skin cells to build up, itching and dandruff to appear. Shampooing that is too rough or using a shampoo that is too harsh can also lead to drying out of the scalp and the formation of dandruff.

  • Brushing your hair too much, which causes so much friction on the sensitive scalp that dandruff occurs
  • Allergic reaction (contact dermatitis) to hair care or styling products, often associated with redness and itching
  • too much sunlight
  • excessive pressure on the scalp (e.g. from caps and hats)
  • Environmental influences such as dust and dirt that accumulate in the hair and scalp
  • Diet (too few omega-3 fatty acids and probiotics)

Doctors believe that some people are more susceptible to dandruff for reasons that are still unknown. Therefore, factors other than those listed here can also be responsible for dandruff formation.


For experts, not all dandruff is the same. They distinguish between dry dandruff and greasy dandruff. Both an itching on the scalp accompanies the visible scales in the hair.

With oily dandruff, the scalp is seborrheic. Seborrheic means there is increased sebum production. Medically it is also referred to as seborrheic dermatitis. Most anti-dandruff shampoos and products are aimed at people who suffer from oily dandruff.

Dry dandruff occurs because the scalp is too dry. This can have different reasons. One of them is that you don't drink enough fluids (ideally water) per day and your skin is therefore dry. External factors such as dry heated air, a lot of sunlight or a dry climate also ensure that your skin loses a lot of water and tends to flake.

External factors also include care and styling products and styling tools that you regularly use on your hair. They can cause your scalp to be stripped of too many of its natural oils and moisture, causing the scalp to develop dandruff. Switching to milder care and styling products can help you get rid of annoying dandruff. With traditional anti-dandruff shampoos or even dandruff products from the pharmacy, the dandruff problem tends to get worse.


To get rid of dandruff, you should consider whether your dandruff is oily or dry. This is important because the right treatment depends on whether you have oily or dry dandruff. You can then effectively combat the problem of dandruff.


If you have greasy dandruff on your scalp and your hair becomes greasy relatively quickly, you are well advised to use an anti-dandruff shampoo. Anti-dandruff shampoos remove excess oil from the scalp and hair.

In addition, many anti-dandruff shampoos contain additives that prevent the excessive growth of fungi on the scalp. It is important that you let the shampoo work well. This means: Massage the shampoo thoroughly into your hair and leave it on for a minute. If you have a lot of dandruff and find the problem more severe, you should use the anti-dandruff shampoo three times a week. You can usually see a significant improvement after just two to three weeks. Then (and in the case of mild dandruff) it is sufficient to use the anti-dandruff shampoo once a week.


Dry dandruff is related to a dry scalp. Therefore, you should take a closer look at your current shampoo (and all other care or styling products). The wrong shampoo can be responsible for dry scalp and therefore dandruff because it degreases your skin too much. A mild shampoo is better. You can tell this because it is designed for sensitive and dry scalps. To bring the scalp back into balance, an overnight oil treatment is worthwhile. A few drops of olive oil or coconut oil are enough. Massage it directly into the scalp before going to sleep. So that your pillow doesn't get dirty, it's a good idea to put on a shower cap. Alternatively, you can cover the head with some cling film or a clean plastic bag. This allows the oil to work better overnight. The next day you can wash your hair with a mild shampoo.


There are various home remedies that can help against dandruff. You will probably already have some of them at home and can therefore try them out at short notice. Here are some options:

baking powder

While showering, gently rub some baking soda into your scalp, leave it on for a few minutes, and rinse thoroughly. Baking soda acts like an exfoliant and helps get rid of old skin cells. It also has an antifungal effect (acts against fungi).

Coconut oil

A mask made from coconut oil helps your scalp to be more moisturized. Studies suggest that coconut oil is beneficial in treating eczema. Eczema on the scalp can lead to dandruff. Rub three to five teaspoons of coconut oil into your scalp and leave on for 60 minutes. Then shampoo your hair thoroughly and wash it out.

Tea tree oil

Tea tree oil has been proven to have powerful antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects, combating the very type of fungus that can cause seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff. In addition, treatment with tea tree oil makes your hair less greasy. Please note, however, that tea tree oil can cause irritation on sensitive skin. It's best to dilute the tea tree oil. To do this, simply add a few drops of tea tree oil to about three or four teaspoons of coconut oil, mix together and apply directly to the scalp.

Apple Cider Vinegar

The acidity of apple cider vinegar helps slough off dead skin cells on the scalp. Apple cider vinegar also helps balance the skin's natural pH, preventing the overgrowth of fungi that contribute to dandruff. There are currently no concrete studies on this, only experiences from other affected people. If you want to try apple cider vinegar for dandruff, you can mix a few tablespoons of the vinegar into shampoo or make a conditioner (¼ cup apple cider vinegar with 1/4 cup water). You leave the conditioner on for between 15 minutes and 60 minutes and then rinse it out. It is recommended to rinse twice a week.

Important to know: Home remedies can be effective against dandruff. However, it usually takes longer for a visible improvement to occur than with special anti-dandruff shampoos and products.


When you have dandruff, you want to treat it and get rid of it. This goes without saying. There are also a few general tips to prevent dandruff in the future:

  • If possible, avoid touching the scalp. There are germs on the hands and under the fingernails that can cause and worsen dandruff.
  • Find the right shampoo that removes enough oil from your hair in your individual case without drying out the scalp.
  • Balance the correct shampoo technique (frequency and exposure time).
  • Reduce stress. Stress can cause or worsen dandruff in some people. While Malassezia doesn't get into the scalp through stress, the fungus can thrive particularly well when your immune system is weakened. And stress weakens the immune system.
  • Avoid friction. If you often wear caps, hats, or helmets, the friction they cause can lead to dandruff.

Fresh air, daily brushing (only damp or dry hair, never brush hair while wet), and occasional scalp massages also help because they reduce the buildup of oils and dead skin cells on the scalp.


At memademoiselle.com you will find the perfect hair care for dandruff.

If you have oily dandruff, the Balance Anti Dandruff Shampoo for flaky scalp is perfect for you. It contains several substances that effectively combat dandruff. These include the antibacterial and fungicidal piroctone olamine, which counteracts overgrowth by fungi such as Malassezia furfur. Tamarind is also known for its antimicrobial and fungicidal effects. Both substances actively counteract the formation of new dandruff. Of course, the Balance Anti Dandruff Shampoo for flaky scalp makes your hair look great. The fruit of the tamarind tree smoothes the hair, while keratin and hydrolized keratin provide strength and shine. The glycerin also contained moisturizes, gives suppleness, shine and volume.

If you have dry dandruff, Balance Eco Shampoo for Sensitive & Dry Scalp is the ideal choice. It cleanses thoroughly and effectively without stripping the skin and hair of too much moisture and oil. Redness, itching and dry dandruff are reduced. Urea and lactic acid, among other things, ensure this. Biotin, glycerin and rice extracts make your hair look shiny and supple. What you won't find in the Balance Eco Shampoo for sensitive & dry scalps are silicones or animal testing. The Chic Conditioner is an optimal addition that ensures even more combability and shine. In the 2:0 care set for sensitive scalp you will find both products at a special price.

WHAT HELP AGAINST Stubborn Dandruff?

Let's be honest, sometimes the only way to get rid of dandruff is with medical help. If you have stubborn dandruff that doesn't improve with the care products and methods listed here, gets worse or even spreads to your face and other parts of your body, it's time to go to the doctor's office. It is possible that conditions such as psoriasis, eczema, a fungal infection, actinic keratosis, or ringworm of the scalp (tinea capitis) are responsible for the stubborn dandruff.


To get rid of dandruff quickly, you should switch to a suitable shampoo. Improvement usually occurs after two to three weeks. Unfortunately, there are no miracle cures that immediately help against dandruff. Your scalp needs some time to regenerate.


Dandruff can be annoying or embarrassing. Dandruff is usually harmless and can be easily combated with the right shampoo.